Publications and Papers

During the past years, EFQUEL has developed a series of research papers and policy papers to enter into the discussion regarding quality and technology enhanced learning.

EFQUEL has recently published the following:

  State of Art Review of Quality Issues Related to Open Educational Resources by Anthony F. Camilleri, Ulf Daniel Ehlers and Jan Pawlowski (May 2014)This report provides an overview of definitions of quality for OER, suggests a conceptual mapping and reviews the major issues related to the quality for OER. It also identifies recommendations for policymakers at European and Member State level on quality assurance and OER with a view to supporting the further development and use of OER in Europe.

Open Educational Resources

Open Learning Recognition: Taking Open Educational Resources a Step Further” (December 2012)This book provides the reader with the foundation for the development of envisaged framework, organised into the four topics: assessment methods; requirements and standards of resources; credentialisation, certification and recognition and inter-institutional collaboration. The third chapter is devoted to different scenarios of open learning in order to obtain in-depth understanding of the OER challenges and bring closer a basis for identifying vital differences among them to better address these challenges.

Open Educational Practices

“Mainstreaming Open Educational Practices“, policy recommendations, Anthony F. Camilleri (January 2012)EFQUEL has developed a guide for policy makers to explain open educational practice, and make recommendations for how this concept can be embraced by education systems. Open educational resources, and open education more generally, are considered to have huge potential to increase participation and educational opportunities at large and to promote widening participation and lifelong learning. At the same time, the past decade has shown that openness in itself is not enough to unfold this potential. It is important to shift the focus more to the actual open practice of using, reusing, or creating open educational opportunities: open educational practice.

Related OPAL documents


Quality of e-Learning courses and Programmes

“ECBCheck, Low cost, community based certification for e-Learning in Capacity Building” Ulf-Daniel-Ehlers (2011)In this book, we aim to explain the background for the development of a quality label for e-Learning in Capacity Building in a number of consecutive steps. Based on  contextual factors and requirements as well as input from existing approaches, a concept for a quality label for e-Learning in Capacity Building is developed. The basic architecture of the label is suggested, followed by the description of the concept of quality for both programmes, and institutions.

Related ECBCheck materials

  • The ECBCheck toolkit (quality improvement scheme for e-Learning courses and programmes) developed by EFQUEL
  • Background documentation in the download section of the ECBCheck website:

UNIQUe guidelines

UNIQUe is a high quality institutional certification for outstanding use of ICT in learning and teaching. It is awarded to universities or institutes, after a process of self-assessment and external peer review.  The fundamental feature of the UNIQUe approach is to support institutions of higher education to measure how successful they are in technology-enhanced learning and to allow for continuous improvement.  A UNIQUe application involves a series of iterative steps, which are explained in these UNIQUe guidelines.

Related UNIQUe materials


Shared Evaluation processes and tools

“Shared Evaluation of Quality in Technology-enhanced Learning” Ulf-Daniel Ehlers, EFQUEL, Cornelia Helmstedt, University of Duisburg-Essen, Marie Bijnens, EFQUEL (2011) This white paper aims to guide policy and decision makers through the concept of shared evaluation and the recommended implementation of shared evaluation mechanisms in a learning organisation. The recommendations are based on the validation process rolled out throughout the SEVAQ+ project’s lifetime in which experts have started their reflection on the concept of self-evaluation and transformed this concept into a more collaborative approach of “shared evaluation”. This concept has been concretised in the SEVAQ+ tool, which is a tool for evaluating quality in e-learning in vocational education and training and higher education.

Access the SEVAQ+ tool and more info


Quality of User Generated Content

“User Generated Content quality framework” In this publication we describe a quality model on an abstract and general level which applies to the specifics of users’ content generation processes, and shows how constant enriching, updating and reviewing can be conceptualised into one quality framework. In addition quality methodologies will be suggested and described which can be used at different stages of the quality development process.Furthermore we outline the three quality levels and describe – on basis of a suggested scenario – concrete quality development activities.


ICT for lifelong learning

“Observing Evoluation in Learning through 11 domains of Change. Which role can ICT play in matching the challenges of the XXIst Century” (VISIR Vision report y1)” This VISIR report Y1 is intended as a living document to build consensus around the main challenges and questions surrounding the future of education and a tool offered to stakeholders to systematically reflect on change and build a shared vision on how ICT can contribute to move towards desired directions.
The framework adopted is based on 11 domains of change in learning systems – meant as critical areas of transformation through which education systems can be mapped and the contribution of ICT defined.

VISCED Handbook - Virtual Schools and Colleges - Providing Alternatives for Successful Learning

Success factors of Virtual Schools

“Virtual Schools and Colleges – Providing Alternatives for Successful Learning” These two volumes of the VISCED Handbook entitled “Virtual Schools and Colleges – Providing Alternatives for Successful Learning” are now available from the project team. Volume 1 includes a summary of virtual school and college activity around the world, a series of case studies, a description of a set of innovative piloting activities supported by the project and a chapter on policy challenges and opportunities. Volume 2 elaborates on good practice in online learning, describes the importance of teacher training, and includes the critical success factors as well as our recommendations for policy makers.

More interesting VISCED materials


Quality of Adult Learning

“improve quality for the key stakeholders in adult learning” (QUALC Piloting handbook)Access to learning opportunities and recognition of  learning  achievements is essential for all citizens for their daily life, working life, and life within the community. Adult Learning Centres  have a unique contribution to make in enabling individuals to achieve their personal development goals by identifying and exploiting all available learning opportunities – formal, non-formal and informal. Since the vast majority of what we know and can do is acquired non-formally and informally, the focus of the QUALC is on ALC non-formal/informal facilitation and specifically on the quality of this facilitation.The piloting handbook highlights the innovative QUALC quality approach, which can be adopted to improve quality for the key stakeholders in adult learning; the learners, the learning organisation and the communities in which learning takes place.

Other useful QUALC documents

  • The QUALC toolkit for self-evaluation and peer reviews, available on the EFQUEL website.

EFQUEL related papers and presentations:

Conference and research papers authored by Ulf-Daniel Ehlers

  • Moving from Control to Culture, National Guidelines and Policies for Quality of ODL in Europe (download .doc)
  • „TRANSFER“-„TUTOR“-„COACH“-„NETWORK“ -The emerging social value of learning (download .doc)
  • Open Educational Practices: Unleashing the power of OER (download .doc)   OPAL-paper-ehlers.doc
  • New Learning Cultures – New Quality? (download .doc)
  • Analysing New E-Learniing Culture. (download .doc)
  • Networked Learning in a Networked World (download .doc)
  • New Learning for a New Society?! “ConnectLearning – an answer for the new challenges?” (download .doc)
  • Quality of E-learning Content, through An International PeER-review Community (download .doc)
  • New LeaRning Cultures for Adult Learning, Learning between Weak and String Ties (download .doc LLine-ehlers.doc
  • Research Policies for Information and Communication Technologies in Europe (download .doc)
  • Open ECBCheck – Quality for eCapacity Building in Africa and Beyond: Community Based, Low Cost Certification for E-Learning (download .doc)
  • Web 2.0 – Transforming Businesses, How Corporations use the new Technologies, (download .doc)
  • Learning Cultures 2.0 – A need for new quality? (download .doc)
  • The European Quality Observatory, How to find the Most Suitable Quality Strategy? (download .doc)
  • Catching a Moving Target?! Global Quality for eCapacity Building (download .doc)
  • Bridging The Gap, E-Learning for Capacity Building in Development Cooperation. (download .doc)
  • E-learning Readiness Analysis (ERA): an e-health, case study of e-learning readiness (download .doc)
  • Catching a Moving Target?! Global Quality for eCapacity Building (download .doc)
  • Extending the territory: From Open Educational Resources to Open Educational Practices (download .doc)
  • Discovering the Unknown Territory – How to Move From Control to Culture in Higher Education Quality (download .doc)

EFQUEL green papers

(written by the members of the EFQUEL board in 2006 and 2008):